Important Notes on Nobel Prize and Nobel Prize Winners - Information That We Want

Thursday, 9 April 2020

Important Notes on Nobel Prize and Nobel Prize Winners

Notes on   NOBEL PRIZE

  • The Nobel Prize is a set of Annual International awards bestowed in Several Categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances

  • Nobel Prizes are named after Alfred Nobel.

  • He is a Swedish Businessman, Chemist, engineer, inventor, and Philanthropist. He held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. The invention of Dynamite made him rich. He decided to use the money to honor people who helped mankind in some way.


  • The will of the Alfred Nobel established in (5) Five Nobel Prizes in 1895.

  • The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and physiology or medicine fields.

  • Nobel Prize first awarded in 1901. The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.

  • The prize may not be shared among more than three individuals although Nobel peace prize can be awarded to Organisations of more than three people.

  • He died on 10th December, 1986 in San Remeo, Italy from a cerebral hemorrhage. He was 63 years old. 

  • Nobel Prize is given on 10th December every year since 1901.

  • The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private Organisation on 29th June 1900. His function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

  • The capital of the Nobel Foundations today is invested in 50% shares, 20% bonds and 30% other investments (hedge funds or real estate). The distribution can vary by 10%.

  • On 10th December – Nobel Day- award ceremonies takes place in both Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway.

                  STOCKHOLM

              At the Stockholm Concert Hall, the winners in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or medicines, literature and economics sciences receive a medal from the king of Sweden as well as a diploma and a cash award of Swedish Kronor (SEK) 9.0 million (Cash value is about 1.4 million dollars). The economy is followed by the gala banquet at Stockholm City Hall.

                  OSLO 

                At the Oslo, the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded on the same day.
  • In 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden’s Central Bank) established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
  • Economics sciences Prize have been awarded since 1968.

  • So, now there are six (6) fields where the Nobel Prizes have been giving - i.e. Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, physiology or medicine, and Economics.

  • The exact weight of the Nobel Medal varies, but each medal is 18 karats green gold plated with 24 Karated (Pure) gold with an average weight of around 175 grams.

         NOMINATIONS

                   Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes awarded. The deadline for the return of the nomination form is 31st January of the year of the award. The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All the nominations records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the Prize.


         SELECTION

                  After nomination, the Nobel Committee then prepares a report reflecting the advice of the experts in the relevant fields. This along with the list of preliminary candidates is submitted to the prize-awarding institution. The institutions meet to choose the laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision which cannot be appealed is announced immediately after the vote. A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Except the Peace Prize, which can be awarded to institutions, the awards can only be given to individuals also.

           FACTS about Women

                 Nobel Prize and the Prize of Economic Science have been awarded to 54 women between 1901 to 2019. Altogether 950 Prize Winner.
  • One woman Marie Curie has been honoured twice
                     In 1913  - Physics
                     In 1911 – Chemistry

  • In 1909, Sweda Selma Lagerlof became the first female Literature Laureate.

          AGE WISE

 
Name of the Laureate Field Year AGE TYPE
Malala Yousafzai Nobel Peace Prize 2014 17 Years Youngest person
John B. Goodenough In Chemistry 2019 97 years Oldest person

Literature Laureates

Name of the Laureate Given for Year AGE TYPE
Rudyard Kipling The English man best known for the Jungle Book 1907 41 years Youngest
Doris Lessing
(she is described as the female experience, who with skepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilization to scrutiny)
 -
2007 87 years Oldest

WHO DECLINE THE NOBEL PRIZE

Name of the Laureate
Year Field Reason / Cause
Jean-Paul-Sarte 1964 Literature He had consistently declined all official honours.
Le Duc Tho 1973 Vietnam peace accord He was not in a position to accept the Nobel Peace Prize
Adolf Hitler
Richard Kuhn
Adolf Butenandt
Gerhard Domagk
The can receive the medal and Diploma later but not the prize amount.
Boris Pasternak
1958
Literature Nobel Laureate in Literature initially accepted the Nobel Prize but was later coerced by the authorities of the Soviet Union, his native Country to decline the Nobel Prize.

Persons arrested at the time of Award

          1.  German pacifist and journalist     - Carl von Ossietzky
          2.  Burmese politician                         - Aung San Suu Kyi
          3.  Chinese human rights activist     -  Liu Xiaobo

Multiple Nobel Prize Laureates

       
Name of the Laureates / Organizations YEAR Field Remarks
IRCTC 1917, 1944, 1963 Peace 1st get “ Henry Dunant”
John Bar Deen 1956 Physics For research on semiconductor and discovery of transistor effect (share 1/3)
1972 Theory of superconductivity usually called BCS- Theory  (Share-1/3)
Marie Curie 1903 Physics Discovery of spontaneous Radioactivity  (share ¼)
1911 Chemistry Discovery of the elements Radium and Polonium by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element.
Linus Carl Pauling 1954 Chemistry
-
1962 Peace
Frederick Sanger 1958 Chemistry For his work as the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin
1980 For his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA
UNHCR 1954, 1981 Peace
 -

NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS

       
Fields Year
1901 2018 2019 Remarks
Physics Wilhelm Röntgen Arthur Ashkin,
Gérard Mourou and
Donna Strickland
James Peebles,
Michel Mayor and
Didier Queloz
 -
Chemistry Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Frances H. Arnold,
George P. Smith and
Greg Winter
John B. Goodenough ,
M. Stanley , Whittingham and
Akira Yoshino
 -
Physiology or Medicine Emil Adolf von Behring James P. Allison and
Tasuku Honjo
William Kaelin Jr.,
Peter J. Ratcliffe and
Gregg L. Semenza
 -
Literature Sully Prudhomme Olga Tokarczuk Peter Handke  -
Peace Henry Dunant and
Frédéric Passy
Denis Mukwege and
Nadia Murad
Abiy Ahmed  -
Economics 1969
Ragnar Frisch and
Jan Tinbergen
William Nordhaus and
Paul Romer
Abhijit Banerjee,
Esther Duflo and
Michael Kremer
First given in the year 1969

Indian Nobel Prize Winners - EIGHT  (8)  peoples

Name of the Laureates / Organizations Field Year
Rabindranath Tagore Literature 1913
Chandrasekhar Venkata Raman Physics
(for scattering of light)
1930
Dr. Har Gobind Khorana Medicine
(Study of Human Genetic code and explaining its role in the process of protein synthesis)
1968
Mother Teresa Peace 1979
Dr. Subramanian Chandrasekhar Physics 1983
Amartya Sen Economics 1998
Dr. Venkataraman Ramakrishnan Chemistry 2009
Kailash Satyarthy Peace Prize 2014


Why are the individuals and organizations awarded a Nobel Prize called Nobel Laureates?

              The word “Laureate” refers to being signified by the Laurel wreath. In Greek Mythology, the god Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head. A laurel wreath is a circular crown made of branches and leaves of the bay Laurel. In ancient Greece, Laurel wreath were awarded to victors as a sign of honour both in athletic competition and in poetic meets.

Imortant Notes on Nobel Prize



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